The aim of this study was to provide a developmental understanding of the swallowing muscles in rodents. A review of the similarities and differences in swallowing between human and rodents, and the development of swallowing muscles in rodents, was executed. It was confirmed that swallowing in humans and rodents is biologically similar. A summary of the development process and anatomical structure of the muscles involved in swallowing was provided. The developmental understanding of the muscles and anatomical structure related to swallowing in rodents can be used as basic data for developmental biological research on the regeneration of swallowing muscles. In future studies, further investigation of the developmental origins of muscles related to swallowing may help provide additional understandings of swallowing muscle regeneration for treatment of dysphagia.
Figures & Tables
Fig. 1. (A-E) are shown in the oral(A), pharyngeal(B-D), and esophageal(E) phases. AC: Aritenoid cartilages, CC: Cricoid cartilage, CT: Cricothyroid muscles, DM: Digastric muscles, E: Esophagus, GG: Genioglossus muscle, GM: Geniohyoid muscle, H: Hyoid bone, HG: Hyoglossus muscle, ICM: Inferior constrictor muscle, LCA: Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles, LES: Lower esophageal sphincter, LTA: Lateral thyroarytenoid muscles, MCM: Middle constrictor muscle, MM: Mylohyoid muscle, MTA: Medial thyroarytenoid muscles, OHM: Omohyoid muscle, PCA: posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, SC: Scapula, SCM: Superior constrictor muscle, SG: Styloglossus muscle, SHM: Sternohyoid muscle, SM: Stylohyoid muscle, ST: Sternum, STM: Sternothyroid muscle, T: Tongue, TA: Transverse arytenoid muscle, TC: Thyroid cartilage, THM: Thyrohyoid muscle, UES: Upper esophageal sphincter.